+ – Prehistoric and Historic Archaeology
Geoarcheology Research Associates, Inc. (GRA) offers a comprehensive range of cultural resources management services to assist government agencies and developers with regulatory compliance. Archeological survey and reconnaissance, historic preservation, and architectural history investigations are designed to address the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended, along with other federal, state, and local preservation laws and regulations. GRA is especially equipped to manage problem-oriented investigations and to assist developers and communities with the management and preservation of cultural resources through Phase I site documentation and examination, Phase II sensitivity assessment and evaluation, and Phase III mitigation excavation and analysis.
+ – Geoarchaeological Analyses
Geoarcheology Research Associates, Inc. (GRA) is one of the few companies that utilizes methods of the earth sciences to assess cultural resources and site preservation potential. Our strategies are innovative, scientifically sound and ultimately cost-effective. Strategies stress assessments of the sediments in which artifacts are housed to judge the integrity and antiquity of archeological sites. In urban environments, for example, rapid industrialization has buried ancient landscapes, resulting in accumulations of fill whose depth may eliminate tracts from additional assessments of sensitivity. Conversely, certain types of natural environments could not have preserved archeological materials because they are either too old or people would never have lived in them.
For details on the principles and advantages of geoarcheology you may also view an ACRA White Paper on geoarcheology prepared by Dr. Schuldenrein.
+ – Archaeological Forensic Services
Archaeological forensics provide the umbrella for an efficient interdisciplinary strategy. This begins with remote sensing, geophysical prospection, and site discovery. The next stage is systematic grave sampling, DEM-based mapping, and rapid but meticulously-provenienced data recovery, followed by in-country osteo-archaeological analysis. A major emphasis is placed on reconciling victims’ remains with families and tribal groups to provide some measure of closure to tragic events.
+ – Archaeological Laboratory Analyses
Artifacts and sediment samples are carefully examined at GRA’s Brooklyn laboratory. Here, artifacts are classified by function, composition, and age. Sediments are described in detail and sub-sampled under controlled laboratory conditions for technical analyses such as radiocarbon dating, palynology, and malacology. The results of these analyses allow GRA to reconstruct the history of a property, layer by layer, providing a detailed picture of archeological sensitivity in three dimensions.
+ – Paleolandscape Analyses
GRA is committed to research that emphasizes increasingly important environmental questions and concerns. Combining geoarchaeological expertise with archival research and GIS software, our research incorporates project stratigraphies with regional landform histories to generate diachronic models of environmental change. By creating time-slices of landscapes, we produce time-transgressive, graphic representations of landscape form and process. These data form part of larger palaeoecological models that can project the changing human and physical geography. Our commitment to holistic interpretation has proved an integral part of interpretation on cultural heritage projects at both the national and international level.
+ – Pollen and Macrofloral Analyses
At GRA, pollen and macrofloral analysis play an integral role in reconstructing former vegetation composition and environmental conditions. Our specialists provide unparalleled preparation and analysis of pollen and sedimentological data, and our expertise allows us to seamlessly incorporate this information with other archaeological data. The results are high-quality, comprehensive analyses that can address a wide range of archaeological questions including environment, land-usage, and diet.
+ – Remote Sensing
GRA has expanded its strategies for subsurface testing with the application of a variety of remote sensing methods. We are equipped to perform both passive and active remote sensing utilizing magnetometry and ground-penetrating radar. Analysis of field data is conducted using diverse software that facilitates the transfer of recorded information into visually informative maps. The objective is to isolate areas with the greatest archaeological potential. Remote sensing technology is rapidly complementing traditional Phase I survey in an effort to optimize initial archeological exploration.
+ – Documentary and Historic Research
GRA is located within easy reach of several major archives of historic documents relating to the early history of the New York Metropolitan area, as well as those in New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. To develop a preliminary assessment of historic sensitivity, our historic archeologists examine maps, deeds, surveys, and census records. GRA uses this historic information to contextualize archaeological finds and preserved surfaces. This allows the team to determine how intact a site is. It also allows a determination of significance, by linking materials and landforms to historic structures and individuals.
+ – Presentations
In addition to our technical services, GRA offers presentations on archaeological discoveries and themes. We have produced a number of presentations in a variety of venues, including leading publications and conferences, films, newspapers, and online. President Joe Schuldenrein, hosts a weekly online radio show aimed at increasing public awareness on archaeological topics. Our technical expertise and public engagement commitment allow us to create quality presentations for general and professional audiences. We are also able to provide professional archaeological illustration services for technical reports and publications.